Creating Jim Crow Laws
The term Jim Crow originated around 1830 when a white minstrel, Thomas "Daddy" Rice, blackened his face and danced to the song, "Jump Jim Crow." He created the character after seeing a black man dancing and singing to the song. The Jim Crow era in American history dates from the late 1890's. Most of the laws were aimed at seperating the races in public spaces. The system of legalized segregation was fully in place by 1910.
external image map_insidesouth.gifThe Jim Crow laws first took place in the south...which are the states shown in red.

Examples of Jim Crow laws
Nurses: No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. Alabama
Buses: All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have seperate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races. Alabama
Railroads: The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama
Restaurants: It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually seperated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama
Pool and Billiard Rooms: It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards. Alabama
Toilet Facilities, Male: Every employer of white or negro males shall provide for such white or negro males reasonably accessible or separate toilet facilities. Alabama
Intermarriage: The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona
Intermarriage: All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida
Cohabitation: Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nightime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. Florida
Education: The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately. Florida
Juvenile Delinquents: There shall be separate buildings, not nearer than one fourth mile to each other, one for white boys and one for negro boys. White boys and negro boys shall not, in any manner, be associated together or worked together. Florida
Mental Hospitals: The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together. Georgia
Intermarriage: It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. Georgia
Barbers: No colored barber shall serve as a barber [to] white women or girls. Georgia
Burial: The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. Georgia
Restaurants: All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two race within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license. Georgia
Amateur Baseball: It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. Georgia
There are many other Jim Crow Laws...these are just a few.


The End of Jim Crow Laws
A man named Thurgood Marshall, NAACP Counsel and civil rights leader, had key victories before the Supreme Court that ended the Jim Crow Laws. Some of these included Morgan v. Virginia in 1946, where they challenged the Virginia law requiring passenger motor vehicles carriers to separate white and black passengers. In Shelley v. Kraemer, 1948, it ruled that a state court could not constitutionally restrict an American from occupying a property on the basis of race, desegregating housing. These cases inforced the 14th amendment. Marshal mounted a well-planned assault on Jim Crow in the education system by arguing Sweat v. Painter and McLauren v.Oklahoma State Regents. Marshall won these cases and used them to prepare himself and the court for a direct attack on Plessy v. Ferguson. In four cases known as Brown v. Board of Education, Marshall argued that segregation was inherently unconstitutional, and that it denied an entire race the equal protection guaranteed by the 14th amendment. The court ruled that separate but equal, had no place in America's public schools, as separate was deemed inherently unequal. Though Jim Crow in education had been defeated, blacks continued to struggle for their rights.